What is a Spectrum analyzer? Types and Function

What is Spectrum analyzer

A spectrum analyzer is a device for use in surveillance. As well as for measuring the relative distribution of electrical/electromagnetic energy in a frequency band.

The spectrum analyzer displays both the amplitude of the spectral components. It depends on the frequency and the individual frequency components that make up the complex signal. Spectrum analyzers take full advantage of the frequency conversion properties of a swept superheterodyne receiver.

Spectrum analyzers can perform measurements. Such as absolute and relative frequency measurements, absolute and relative level measurements, combinational, spurious, noise measurements, scalar measurements. And electromagnetic compatibility measurements and help determine the amplitude and frequency of spectral components.

The main parameters of spectrum analyzers include bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range. The main advantage of these devices is their resolution. A small frequency interval between two spectral lines, which are still shared by the analyzer.

A spectrum analyzer can give a true spectrum only when the analyzed fluctuation occurs periodically, or exists only within the interval.

Spectrum Analyzer Types

Spectral analyzers are classified according to the following characteristics:

  1. Beyond the frequency range,
  2. Behind the principle of action,
  3. The method of processing information and results,
  4. The nature of the analysis.

Let’s take a closer look at what spectrum analyzers are.

Non-frequency Spectrum analyzers

Non-frequency analyzers can be both parallel (more common) and simultaneous (serial) types. They are designed to operate in a flexible frequency range, from a few Hz to hundreds of kHz. Low-frequency analyzers are used mainly in acoustics

RF devices

RF devices are designed to analyze radio signal properties and study the characteristics of radio devices. Basically, RF analyzers are broadband. The operating range is from a few Hz to hundreds of GHz.

Optical spectral devices

They are quite an important type of measurement in modern fiber-optic communication systems.

Spectrum analyzers are used for continuous monitoring of the state of mechanisms. And individual parts, hydroacoustic measurements (a worthy alternative to an echo sounder), vibration, and acoustic tests of various objects.

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